Better Python version and environment management with pyenv

In the Setting up Virtual Development Environments for Python post, we discussed the use of pythonbrew for managing Python versions and their related virtualenvs. If you do enjoy pythonbrew, then be sure to check out pythonz which is now the active fork of the original project and has resolved almost all issues that I had originally reported.

However, there is another alternative called pyenv which has several significant advantages. Probably one of the biggest is the fact that pyenv doesn’t depend on Python 2.6+ to be installed. Many OSs (e.g. SLES 10 and CentOS 5) come with Python 2.4 pre-installed. In addition, pyenv implements automatic switching of Python version or virtualenv based on the directory you’re in.

So let’s get started!

If you’re using CentOS, install all build dependencies as follows:

Firstly, ensure you install EPEL if you’re on CentOS 5.x:

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curl -O http://mirror.iprimus.com.au/epel/5/i386/epel-release-5-4.noarch.rpm
rpm -Uvh epel-release-5-4.noarch.rpm

Now install the build dependencies:

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sudo yum install git gcc zlib-devel bzip2-devel readline-devel sqlite-devel openssl-devel

If you’re using Ubuntu Server, install all build dependencies like this:

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sudo apt-get install curl git-core gcc make zlib1g-dev libbz2-dev libreadline-dev libsqlite3-dev libssl-dev

Now install pyenv as a regular user:

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curl -L https://raw.github.com/yyuu/pyenv-installer/master/bin/pyenv-installer | bash

Once installation completes, you’ll be presented with some code that should be added to your ~/.bashrc file:

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export PYENV_ROOT="${HOME}/.pyenv"

if [ -d "${PYENV_ROOT}" ]; then
    export PATH="${PYENV_ROOT}/bin:${PATH}"
    eval "$(pyenv init -)"
fi

Simply add this code to the end of your ~/.bashrc and then source your profile to have these additions loaded.

On CentOS:

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source ~/.bash_profile

On Ubuntu Server:

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source ~/.profile

Note: pyenv fully supports bash completion, so be sure to use your tab key when typing commands to help auto-complete them.

To list all available Python versions, use:

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pyenv install -l

To install a Python version, use:

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pyenv install <version>

e.g.

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pyenv install 2.7.6

To list the installed Python versions, use:

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pyenv versions

Note: Virtual environments will also show up as versions after they’re added.

To set the global Python version used for your account, use:

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pyenv global <version>

Creating virtualenvs is also easy and extremely well integrated into pyenv:

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pyenv virtualenv <name>

You may activate and de-activate virtualenvs using:

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pyenv activate <name>
pyenv deactivate

To see all the virtualenvs you have created, you may use:

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pyenv virtualenvs

OK here comes the great part. Suppose we’re working on a project which we know always uses a virtualenv called project123. While in the root of the project directory, you may set the appropriate Python environment that should always be used while in the project directory.

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pyenv local <virtualenv or version>

Now each time you enter this directory, the chosen virtualenv or Python version will be activated automatically! The file that is creatied and specifies the appropriate environment is named .python-version and should be added to your repository.

At any time, you may view the Python environment being used:

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pyenv version

Finally, you can remove a Python version or virtualenv using the uninstall commend:

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pyenv uninstall <virtualenv or version>

Let’s walk through an entire example using my Flaskage project.

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pyenv install 2.7.6
pyenv global 2.7.6
pyenv virtualenv flaskage
cd flaskage/
pyenv local flaskage
pip install -r requirements.txt
git add .python-version

This is definitely the way I’ll be managing my Python environment from now on as it’s definitely the most elegant solution I have found to date. Enjoy! :)

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